“There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus” (Romans 8:1).
The word “condemnation” is from katakrima, meaning penalty. It is the word that Paul used to speak of the consequence of Adam’s choice to rebel against the good and clear command of God, which resulted in condemnation to all men (Romans 5:16, 18). Therefore, when the apostle triumphantly proclaimed “No condemnation!” three chapters later, he meant that believers fear no future penalty for their sins since Jesus paid for them in full (John 19:30). Our union with Christ, by faith, guarantees our eternally “free from condemnation” status.
For this reason, it is theologically improper to speak of God punishing His children; He does not do so. He has already punished all our sins in the body of His Son (1 Peter 2:24). Instead, He disciplines us for the purpose of restoring us to intimate fellowship, training us in godliness, and positioning us for greatest blessing (Hebrews 12:4-11). Unbelievers presently stand condemned (John 3:36), but those who trust Jesus Christ as their Sin-Bearer are forever secure in Him.
What then shall we say to these things? If God is for us, who is against us? He who did not spare His own Son, but delivered Him over for us all, how will He not also with Him freely give us all things? Who will bring a charge against God’s elect? God is the one who justifies; who is the one who condemns? Christ Jesus is He who died, yes, rather who was raised, who is at the right hand of God, who also intercedes for us. (Romans 8:31-34)